Networking

  • Networking is referred as connecting computers electronically for the purpose of sharing information such as files, applications, etc.
  • Basically, network consists of hardware component like computer, hubs, switches, routers and other devices which form the network infrastructure.

Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

  • These are the devices that play an important role in data transfer from one place to another using different technology like radio waves and wires.
  • A network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio, satellites, or infrared light beams.
  • It interact with others to exchange information and develop professional or social contacts. 

Definition of Networking

  • A network consists of two or more computer that are linked in order to share resources, exchange files, or allow electronic communication.

or

  • Network means connect the people across the globe and share their idea’s and thought’s.

Components of Networking

  • Following are the components of Network :-

1. Network Card

2. Networking Cable

3. Hubs and Switches

4. Modem

1. Network Card

  • A network card is used to physically attach a computer to a network, so that can participate in network communication.
  • In network card Ethernet Network Card is the most commonly used.

2. Networking Cable

  • A Networking cables are networking hardware’s use to connect one network to other network devices and to connect two or more computers to share scanners, printers etc.

3. Hubs and Switches

  • Hub is a networking device that allows one to connect multiple computers to a single network.
  • They may be based on Ethernet, Firewire, or USB connections.
  • switch is a control unit which turns the flow of electricity on or off in a circuit.
  • They may also be use to route information patterns in streaming electronic data sent over networks.
  • A Hub/Switch performs the following functions :-
  • Acts as a central points of connection for all the computers on a network. Every computer plugs into the hub/switch.
  • To arrange the points in such a way, so that if a PC transmits data, the data is sent over the other computer through its network card.
  • Basically, the hub/switch is a box with a set of RJ-45 ports. Each computer on a network is connect to the hub/switch via Ethernet cable.

4. Modem

  • A modem enables you to connect your PC to the available internet connection over the existing telephone lines.
  • It converts the digital signals of a PC into analog signals to enable their transmission via phone lines.

Types of Networks

  • There are various types of networks which are as follows :-

1. Personal Area Network ( PAN)

2. Local Area Network ( LAN )

3. Metropolitan Area Network ( MAN )

4. Wide Area Network ( WAN )

1. Personal Area Network ( PAN)

Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

Image: PAN

  • PAN is a PC network that’s mainly created for an individual person.
  • This is used for communication among devices, like laptops, mobile phones, PDA or smartphones.
  • PAN generally covers a range of less than 10 meters ( about 30 feet ).
  • They may be wired or wireless.

2. Local Area Network ( LAN )

Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

Image: LAN

  • In LAN, two or more computers and peripheral devices are connected within a small area, like room, office building or a campus.
  • In Local Area Network, computer terminals are physically connected with wires.
  • The data transmission speed is slow as compared to Wide Area Network.
  • Since LAN is operated in a small area, it can be controlled and administered by a single person or an organisation.

3. Metropolitan Area Network ( MAN )

Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

Image: MAN

  • MAN is large network than LAN.
  • It spreads across a city.
  • Since it covers a city, which is called metropolitan.
  • The most common example of Metropolitan Area Network type network is the cable television, branches of a local bank in a city, etc.

4. Wide Area Network ( WAN )

Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

Image: WAN

  • In WAN network connects two or more computers located at distant places.
  • They link to communicate facilities, like telecommunication or satellite signals for example telecom system, ATM facility, etc.
  • The main characteristic of Wide Area Network is that it requires a public telecommunication media to transfer data.

Networking Architecture

  • Network architecture is overall design of a computer network that describes how a computer network is configured and what strategies are being used.
  • Network architecture mainly are of two types, which are as follows :-

1. Client- Server Network

2. Peer to Peer Network

1. Client- Server Network

Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

Image: Client- Server Network

  • This is a network, where several computers called Clients or workstations are connected to the main computer called the server.
  • A Server is a computer which provides services to clients and controls access to hardware, software, and other resources.
  • Clients are the computers, that request services, like data retrieval, storage, etc., from the server.

2. Peer to Peer Network

Network Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

Image: Peer to Peer Network

  • This is a network where a few computers having equal capacity and capabilities are connected together to use the resources available on the network.
  • In this network, there is no central server instead each computer can act as a server as well as a client.

Network Topologies

  • Network Topology refers to the layout in which various components of a network, like nodes, links, peripherals, etc, are connected and communicate with each other.
  • Topology can be either physical or logical.
  • Physical Topology is the physical format of nodes, workstations and cables in the network.
  • Whereas Logical topology is the way information flows between different components.
  • Network Topologies are classify into the following basic types :-

1. Point- to- Point

2. Bus Topology

3. Star Topology

4. Ring Topology

5. Tree Topology

6. Mesh Topology

1. Point- to- Point

Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

  • This is the simplest form of network structure in which two nodes are directly connected to each other.
  • This type of network is more suitable for small areas where computers are in close proximity.
  • This technology provides a faster and reliable connection.

2. Bus Topology

Networking || Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications

  • This topology uses a single communication line or one main cable to which all nodes are directly connected.
  • The main cable acts as a backbone for the networks.
  • In this type of structure one of the computers in the network acts as the computer server, that provides data to all the clients.
  • This topology uses in small networks where cable requirement is relatively small.

Di advantages

  • If the main cable fails, the entire network becomes unusable.
  • For this reason, this type of topology is not using for large networks.

3. Star Topology

Star_Topology

  • In this topology, each device connects to a central computer using a point- to- point connection. The Central server acts as a Hub.
  • This is very popular because the startup cost is low.

Advantages

  • If any one connection in the network fails, the other connections remain intact.

Di advantages

  • If the central hub fails, the entire networks go down.

4. Ring Topology

Ring_Topology

  • In this topology, all the nodes in the network connects in a circular manner.
  • Each nodes connect to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals.
  • Both LAN & WAN setups are use in Ring topology.

Di advantages

  • If one workstation goes down, the entire networks got affect.

5. Tree Topology

Tree_Topology

  • This is one of the most common network setups that consists of a group of star- figured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.
  • In this topology, one star network connects to the other star networks.
  • In a tree network, a cable failure in one of the star network will isolate only the workstation that links to the central computer of that star network.
  • Whereas, all the other workstations will continue to function normally.
  • If central computer goes down, the entire workstations connect to it will suffer either degrade performance or complete failure, but rest of the network will continue to function normally.
  • In the Tree topology, expansion of network is possible and easy but maintenance becomes difficult.

6. Mesh Topology

Mesh_Topology

  • In this topology, each node connects to every other node in the network.
  • In Mesh topology, every node not only sends its own signals but also relays data from other nodes.
  • This type of topology can handle a large volume of traffic.
  • In case, if one of the component fails, there is always an alternative present so that the data transfer doesn’t get affected.
  • Even expansion and modifications can be done in this topology without affecting other nodes.
  • Overall cost of this network is extremely high as compared to other network topologies.

Networking Security

  • Network Security means protecting data and resources from any unauthorised access.
  • It is the most important aspect in computer networking.
  • These are the following points that may happen in any organisation :-
  • Some employees may try to change the data concerning their leave records, salaries, performance appraisals, etc.
  • Accidental deletion of important data.
  • Former employees or some other people may try to harm the company’s data.
  • People outside the company can try to access confidential data.
  • There are Two general levels of network security :-

1. Login security

2. Right security

1. Login security

  • You give a unique login name and password.

2. Right security

  • Based upon your user name, you give rights, like Read- Only Access or Read- Write Access at all.
  • A combination of rights may also be granted to the same user for different sets of data.

Advantages of Networking

  • For efficient use of storage media.
  • For preserving information.
  • To reduction in hardware costs.
  • Efficiency
  • For redundancy
  • Quickest document delivery

Dis advantages of Networking

  • A PC on a network is vulnerable to hackers.
  • There is a chance of hacking, particularly with wide area networks.
  • Viruses can spread to other computers throughout a PC network.
  • If the file server breaks down the files on the file server become difficult to reach.

Applications of Networking

  • For sharing.
  • Printer sharing.
  • To Communication and collaboration.
  • To remote access.
  • For data protection.

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Let’s Know More

  • Conferencing
  • When two users have simultaneous conversation via internet, it’s call Conferencing.
  • Video Conferencing
  • In Video Conference participants in different locations are able to communicate with each other in sound and vision.
  • Bluetooth
  • It is a wireless technology use for interconnect mobile phones, computers, printers using short- range of wireless connection.
  • Protocols
  • Protocols are the certain sets of rules that determine how data should be transfer over the screen and so on.
  • Wireless
  • It means of communication that uses low power ratio between devices.
  • Wi-fi
  • Wi-fi stands for Wireless Fidelity.
  • It represents wireless local area network.
  • WAP
  • WAP stands for wireless access point.
  • This is a device that connects wireless communication devices to form a wireless network.

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